ASTRAGALUS : http://88swiss.com/astragalus/index.htm
Astragalus is an ancient traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is derived from roots of various Astragalus species that are native to China, Korea and North America. Called Huang Qi in Chinese traditional medcine, it is purported to have immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiviral and cardiotonic activities and is used to treat stress, fatigue, pain, memory loss, viral infections, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, heart failure, and kidney and liver disease. It is also used as a general tonic to increase energy, reduce fatigue and counteract the effects of aging. Its efficacy in these conditions has not been shown in controlled prospective studies, but it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries and is currently becoming a popular herbal product in Western countries. Astragalus extracts have multiple chemical constituents and the specific active ingredient responsibility for its activity has not been identified. Constituents include triterpene glycosides, saponins (astragalosides), sterols, fatty acids, isoflavonoids and polysaccharides. Extracts of astragalus are often supplied as tablets or capsules which are taken once to three times daily. Astragalus is also supplied as liquids and teas. Side effects are uncommon and have not been clearly defined. Large doses can cause gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, probably because of direct irritation to the intestinal mucosa.
Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Metabolites, Telomere Shortening, Astragalus mongholicus (MG), Astragalus membranaceus (MJ), Huangqi, diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Astragalus Radix (HQ) and Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SY), CO2 enrichment, supplemental LED light, b-cell metabolism, pancreatic, active compounds, Formononetin, anticancer, isoflavone, Autophagy, cellular tissue, Quercetin, Macrophage Activation, Huang Qi, Milk vetch, Radix astragalus, liver tox, Astragalus membranaceus, aging, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, immnoregulation, traditional Chinese medicines, Astragalus genus, phytochemistry, biological activities, analyses, Astragalus membranaceus extract, macrophage, heparanase, migration, immune response mediator, immune response, neural diseases, levodo
Summary of Abstracts:
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Astragalus tribuloides Delile. Root Extract: Characterization, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities: [ This has an impact on potential delivery options to the body. ] Today, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a promising strategy in material science and nanotechnology. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through the high-efficient, cost-effective green and facile process, using the Astragalus tribuloides Delile. root extract as a bioreduction and capping agent at room temperature. UV-V spectroscopy was applied for the investigation of the reaction proceedings. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity, the greenly synthesized AgNPs showed a stranger effect than the A. tribuloides root extract (82% versus 69% at 500 ug/mL). Generally, the AgNPs that were fabricated by using the A. tribuloides root extract had appropriate antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities and, therefore, can be considered as a promising candidate for various biomedical applications.
UV-B Radiation Largely Promoted the Transformation of Primary Metabolites to Phenols in Astragalus mongholicus Seedlings: [ This may have impact on raising sprouts, to give them an extra nutrient punch (like sprouting in cooler temperatures). ] Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) may induce photobiological stress in plants, activate the plant defense system, and induce changes of metabolites. In our previous work, we found that between the two Astragalus varieties prescribed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Astragalus mongholicus has better tolerance to UV-B. Verification experiments show that the response of phenolics in roots to UV-B is activated by upregulation of relevant genes rather than phenylalanine. Overall, this study reveals the tissues-specific alteration and mechanism of primary and secondary metabolic strategy in response to UV-B radiation.
The Use of Natural Agents to Counteract Telomere Shortening: Effects of a Multi-Component Extract of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge and Danazol: A link between telomere shortening and oxidative stress was found in aging people and patients with cancer or inflammatory diseases. Extracts of Astragalus spp. are known to stimulate telomerase activity, thereby compensating telomere shortening. We characterized a multi-component hydroethanolic root extract (HRE) of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge and assessed its effects on telomeres compared to those of danazol. The rate of cells with short telomeres (
Chemical Discrimination of Astragalus mongholicus and Astragalus membranaceus Based on Metabolomics Using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Approach: [ Astragalus membranaceus (MJ) has stronger pharmacological activities than MG. ] Astragalus mongholicus (MG) and Astragalus membranaceus (MJ), both generally known as Huangqi in China, are two perennial herbals widely used in variety diseases. Of them, the contents of 36 components including Astragaloside I-III, Astragaloside IV, Agroastragaloside I, etc. in MJ were significantly higher than those in MG. On the contrary, the contents of 17 other components including coumaric acid, formononetin, sophoricoside, etc. in MG were obviously higher than those in MJ. The results showed that the distinctive constituents in MG and MJ were remarkable, and MJ may own stronger pharmacological activities than MG. In a word, MG and MJ may be treated as two different herbs. This paper demonstrated that metabolomics was a vitally credible technology to rapidly screen the characteristic chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine.
Study on Hypoglycemic Effect of the Drug Pair of Astragalus Radix and Dioscoreae Rhizoma in T2DM Rats by Network Pharmacology and Metabonomics: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease accompanied by a series of diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. The drug pair (HS) of Astragalus Radix (HQ) and Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SY) was designed by Dr. Shi Jinmo to improve the treatment of T2DM. Metabolic profiling indicated that the metabolic perturbation was reduced after HS treatment. The results found 21 biomarkers. According to the network pharmacology, we found that the regulation of T2DM was primarily associated with 18 active compounds in HS. These active compounds mainly had an effect on 135 targets. Subsequently, combining network pharmacology and metabonomics, we found four target proteins, which indicated that HS has potential hypoglycemic effects through regulating monoamine oxidases B (MAOB), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), and catalase (CAT). In conclusion, the result showed that these four targets might be the most relevant targets for the treatment of T2DM with HS. This study clarified the mechanism of HS in the treatment of T2DM and also confirmed the feasibility of combining metabonomics and network pharmacology to study the mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In the future, this approach may be a potentially powerful tool to discovery active components of traditional Chinese medicines and elucidate their mechanisms.
Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Combined with Supplemental Light Improve Growth and Quality of Plug Seedlings of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge and Codonopsis lanceolata Benth. et Hook. f.: Astragalus membranaceus Bunge and Codonopsis lanceolata Benth. et Hook. f. are two medicinal species used to remedy inflammation, tumor, and obesity in Eastern medicine. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and supplemental lighting are two methods to enhance the growth, yield, and quality of crops. The results showed that the supplemental lighting (LEDs, MH, and HPS) greatly improved the seedling quality with greater dry weights (of the shoot, root, and leaf), stem diameter, leaf area, and Dickson’s quality index (DQI) than those of the control in both species. An enriched CO2 at 1050 umol mol-1 accelerated the growth and development of plug seedlings, evidenced by the increased root and leaf dry weights, stem diameter, and DQI compared to the those from the other two CO2 enrichment levels. Moreover, LEDs combined with 1050 umol mol-1 CO2 not only increased the contents of soluble sugars but also the starch content. However, an enriched CO2 at 700 umol mol-1 was more suitable for the accumulation of total phenols and flavonoids. Furthermore, LEDs combined with 700 or 1050 umol mol-1 CO2 increased the chlorophyll, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance at daytime and nighttime for A. membranaceus and C. lanceolata, respectively. In conclusion, the data suggest that LEDs combined with CO2 at 1050 umol mol-1 is recommended for enhancing the growth and development of plug seedlings of A. membranaceus and C. lanceolata.
Identification and Isolation of Active Compounds from Astragalus membranaceus that Improve Insulin Secretion by Regulating Pancreatic b-Cell Metabolism: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), insufficient secretion of insulin from the pancreatic b-cells contributes to high blood glucose levels, associated with metabolic dysregulation. Interest in natural products to complement or replace existing antidiabetic medications has increased. In this study, we examined the effect of Astragalus membranaceus extract (ASME) and its compounds 1-9 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic b-cells. The data suggest that two isoflavonoids (2 and 3) and a nucleoside (compound 5), isolated from the roots of A. membranaceus, have the potential to improve insulin secretion in b-cells, representing the first step towards the development of potent antidiabetic drugs.
Astragalus polysaccharide (PG2) Ameliorates Cancer Symptom Clusters, as well as Improves Quality of Life in Patients with Metastatic Disease, through Modulation of the Inflammatory Cascade: Improving patients quality of life (QoL) is a principal objective of all treatment in any clinical setting, including oncology practices. Cancer-associated inflammation is implicated in disease progression and worsening of patients QoL. Conventional anticancer therapeutics while selectively eliminating cancerous cells, are evaded by stem cell-like cells, and associated with varying degrees of adverse effects, thus reducing patients QoL. This necessitates novel therapeutic approaches with enhanced efficacy, minimal or no treatment-related adverse effects, and improved QoL in patients with cancer, especially those with metastatic/advance stage disease. Results: All 23 patients with metastatic disease treated with either low or high PG2 experienced reduced pain, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue, as well as better appetite and sleep, culminating in improved global QoL. This was most apparent in the high dose group, with significant co-suppression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17, monocytes chemotactic protein (MCP)1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor growth factor (TGF)-b1, interferon (IFN)-y, and immune suppressors IL-10 and IL-12. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that IL-1b, IL-13 and GM-CSF are independent prognosticators of improved QoL. Conclusion: This proof-of-concept study provides premier evidence of functional association between PG2 anti-inflammatory effects and improved QoL in patients with advanced stage cancers, laying the groundwork for future larger cohort blinded controlled trials to establish the efficacy of PG2 as adjuvant anticancer therapy in metastatic or advanced stage clinical settings.
Focus on Formononetin: Anticancer Potential and Molecular Targets: [ Reduction of inflammation linked to cancer survival of neoplastic cells, and improved chemo. Formononetin extract can be a therapy for malignancies and molecular targets. ] Formononetin, an isoflavone, is extracted from various medicinal plants and herbs, including the red clover (Trifolium pratense) and Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus. Formononetin antioxidant and neuroprotective effects underscore its therapeutic use against Alzheimers disease. Formononetin has been under intense investigation for the past decade as strong evidence on promoting apoptosis and against proliferation suggests for its use as an anticancer agent against diverse cancers. These anticancer properties are observed in multiple cancer cell models, including breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Formononetin also attenuates metastasis and tumor growth in various in vivo studies. The beneficial effects exuded by formononetin can be attributed to its antiproliferative and cell cycle arrest inducing properties. Formononetin regulates various transcription factors and growth-factor-mediated oncogenic pathways, consequently alleviating the possible causes of chronic inflammation that are linked to cancer survival of neoplastic cells and their resistance against chemotherapy. As such, this review summarizes and critically analyzes current evidence on the potential of formononetin for therapy of various malignancies with special emphasis on molecular targets.
The Effects of Astragalus membranaceus Active Extracts on Autophagy-Related Diseases: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-eating process that maintains cellular, tissue, and organismal homeostasis. New studies on autophagy, mediated by subsets of autophagy proteins, are emerging in many physiological and pathological processes. Astragalus membranaceus (AM), also named Huangqi, is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine and its extracts have been proved to possess many biological activities related to autophagy, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-photoaging, and improvement of cardiomyocyte function. Evidence suggests that AM extracts can have therapeutic potential in autophagy dysregulation-associated diseases because of their biological positive effects. Here we will review the literature concerning the effects of AM extracts on autophagy dysregulation-associated diseases.
Small-Seeded Legumes as a Novel Food Source. Variation of Nutritional, Mineral and Phytochemical Profiles in the Chain: Raw Seeds-Sprouted Seeds-Microgreens: Growing public concerns about health haves prompted the search for novel food sources. The study is focused on the seeds, sprouted seeds and microgreens of Trifolium pratense, T. medium, Medicago sativa, M. lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astragalus glycyphyllos and A. cicer species as a potential source of value-added food ingredientsr. The samples were analysed for nutritional (wet chemistry, standard methods) and mineral (atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry) profiles, isoflavones (ultra-performance liquid with diode array detector UPLC-DAD), coumestrol (UPLC-DAD), condensed tannins (CT) (vanillin-H2SO4 assay) and triterpene saponins (UPLC with triple-stage quadrupole MS). In our study, each species displayed high, but species-dependent nutritional, mineral and phytochemical value. All counterparts of legumes were mineral and protein rich. A. glycyphyllos samples, especially seeds, were abundant in iron. Trifolium spp. were found to be important sources of isoflavones, Medicago spp. of coumestrol and saponins, and O. viciifolia of CT. The protein and phytochemical contents increased and total carbohydrates decreased from seeds to microgreens.Our findings proved for the first time that seeds, sprouted seeds, and especially microgreens of small-seeded legumes are promising new sources of ingredients for fortification of staple foods with bioactive compounds, minerals and nutrients.
Interference of Quercetin on Astragalus Polysaccharide-Induced Macrophage Activation: [ Quercetin may inhibit macrophage active by Astragalus (do not take together). Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid). It is found in many plants and foods, such as red wine, onions, green tea, apples, berries, Ginkgo biloba, St. Johns wort, American elder, and others. Buckwheat tea has a large amount of quercetin. ] Polysaccharides, which exert immunoregulatory effects, are becoming more and more popular as food supplements; however, certain components of ordinary foods could be reducing the polysaccharides beneficial effects. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in common fruits and vegetables, is one such component. This study investigated the effects of quercetin on Astragalus polysaccharide RAP induced-macrophage activation. The results show quercetin decreases the NO production and iNOS gene expression in RAW264.7 cells, and it inhibits the production of cytokines in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. Western blot analysis results suggest that quercetin inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt/mTORC1, MAPKs, and TBK1, but has no effect on NF-kB in RAP-induced RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, the results show that quercetin partly inhibits macrophage activation by the Astragalus polysaccharide RAP. This study demonstrates that quercetin-containing foods may interfere with the immune-enhancing effects of Astragalus polysaccharide RAP to a certain extent.
LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Astragalus is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used as a general tonic and treatment for many conditions including diarrhea, upper respiratory infections, heart disease, hepatitis and cancer. Astragalus has not been associated with serum enzyme elevations during therapy nor in causing clinically apparent liver injury. Astragalus is considered generally safe and without major adverse effects. In the few human studies that have been published there were no reports of serum enzyme elevations occurring during therapy and no mention of serious adverse events or hepatotoxicity. It has been shown to have hepatoprotective activities in animal models and has been used to treat liver diseases, although with uncertain efficacy. There have been no published reports of hepatotoxicity from astragalus, but it is present in many multiingredient products and the purity and potency of commercial preparations are not rigorously regulated. Thus, clinically apparent liver injury attributable to astragalus must be rare if it occurs at all. Astragalus has not been reported to cause clinically apparent liver injury. Because of its possible effects on CYP activity, its potential for herb-drug interactions should be considered before it is used.
Anti-Aging Implications of Astragalus Membranaceus (Huangqi): A Well-Known Chinese Tonic: Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) is a major medicinal herb that has been commonly used in many herbal formulations in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a wide variety of diseases and body disorders, or marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use in China, for more than 2000 years. The major components of Astragalus membranaceus are polysaccharides, flavonoids, and saponins. Pharmacological research indicates that the extract component of Astragalus membranaceus can increase telomerase activity, and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, expectorant, and diuretic effects. A proprietary extract of the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus, called TA-65, was associated with a significant age-reversal effect in the immune system. Our review focuses on the function and the underlying mechanisms of Astragalus membranaceus in lifespan extension, anti-vascular aging, anti-brain aging, and anti-cancer effects, based on experimental and clinical studies.
A Review of Recent Research Progress on the Astragalus Genus: [ Crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. ] Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for qi deficiency syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.
Astragalus membranaceus Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via Heparanase: [ AME may increase the release of immune response mediator and cell migration via HPA to activate immune response in macrophages. ] Astragalus membranaceus (AM), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has immunoregulatory properties in many diseases. We investigated the effects and mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) in the macrophage migration and immune response mediator release. The viability of Ana-1 macrophages treated with AME was evaluated by the MTT method. The secretion and mRNA levels of IL-1b and TNF-a were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Macrophage migration was assayed by transwell assay. The activity of heparanase (HPA) was determined by a heparin-degrading enzyme assay. Our results didnt show any toxicity of AME in macrophages. AME increased the activity of HPA, cell migration, mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1b and TNF-a in macrophages. Pretreatment with anti-HPA antibody reduced cell migration, secretion of IL-1b and TNF-a did not change the mRNA levels of IL-1b and TNF-a significantly in AME-treated macrophages. This suggests that AME may increase the release of immune response mediator and cell migration via HPA to activate immune response in macrophages.
Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans: [ Protective effect of astragalan against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, from alleviation of oxidative stress. ] Astragalus membranaceus is a medicinal plant traditionally used in China for a variety of conditions, including inflammatory and neural diseases. Astragalus polysaccharides are shown to reduce the adverse effect of levodopa which is used to treat Parkinsons disease (PD). Together, our results demonstrate that the protective effect of astragalan against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity is likely due to the alleviation of oxidative stress and regulation of apoptosis pathway and cholinergic system and thus provide an important insight into the therapeutic potential of Astragalus polysaccharide in neurodegeneration.
Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceous): Astragalus comes to us from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where it is first mentioned in Shen Nung Ben Cao Jing, a 2000- year-old classic as Huang Qi. Huang Qi means yellow leader and astragalus is considered a most important tonic. Traditional uses include lethargy, colds, flu, appetite (lack of), stomach ulcers, and deficiencies of chi (namely, general weakness and fatigue). Other Chinese uses include diabetes, lowering blood pressure, and water retention.
The Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus Inhibit Melanogenesis through the ERK Signaling Pathway: Melanin is a normal production protecting skin from environment-causing damage. Plants produce some agents in response to their environment. These agents could be applied in cosmetic production. Some Chinese herbals have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Melanogenesis represents a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through a complex network of regulatory processes. Previously, some studies found that the extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (PG2) regulated immunity and supported hematopoiesis. Herein, we want to determine the molecular mechanisms by which PG2 inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. The cellular melanin contents and expression of melanogenesis-related protein, including microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase were significantly reduced after PG2 treatment. Moreover, PG2 increased phosphorylation of ERK, without affecting phosphorylation of p38. These results suggested that PG2 as a new target in reducing hyperpigmentation through the ERK signal pathway. PG2 has potential for cosmetic usage in the future.
Anticancer activity of Astragalus polysaccharide in human non-small cell lung cancer cells: [ APS has a significant antitumor activity in human lung cancer cells A549 and NCI-H358. NF-kB inhibition may mediate the antitumor effect. ] We have reported that Chinese herbs Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) can inhibit nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activity during the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice. NF-kB plays important roles in genesis, growth, development and metastasis of cancer. NF-kB is also involved in the development of treatment resistance in tumors. Here we investigated the antitumor activity of APS in human non-small cell lung cells (A549 and NCI-H358) and the related mechanisms of action.
Astragalus saponins induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft: Astragalus memebranaceus is used as immunomodulating agent in treating immunodeficiency diseases and to alleviate the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. In recent years, it has been proposed that Astragalus may possess anti-tumorigenic potential in certain cancer cell types. In this study, the anti-carcinogenic effects of Astragalus saponin extract were investigated in HT-29 human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft. These results indicate that AST could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent in colon cancer treatment, which might also be used as an adjuvant in combination with other orthodox chemotherapeutic drugs to re- duce the side effects of the latter compounds.
Antiviral, embryo toxic and cytotoxic activities of Astragalus membranaceus root extract: Antiviral activity of Astragalus membranaceus aqueous and methanol root extracts was determined against Avian influenza H9 virus. Two concentrations (400 and 200ug/mL) of methanol extract showed cytotoxicity. It was concluded that aqueous and methanol roots extracts of A. membranaceus have antiviral activity and concentrations which were safe may be used for treatment of Avian influenza H9 virus infections.
Astragalus Capsule: 3000 mg of Astragalus extract per capsule, and 200 capsules in each bottle. Supports and maintains Cardiovascular Health. Supports healthy Immune Function and healthy Aging Astragalus root (huang qi) has been used as a popular herbal tonic in Asia for many centuries.
Premium Quality: Natures Answer Alcohol Free Astragalus Root Fluid Extract is a concentrated herbal extract made from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. It offers tremendous benefits of 2000 mg of dried root per serving. Pro-Tips: Put extract into skin cream formulations.
Astragalus root is Guyang County in Inner Mongolia, a basin on Mongolian Plateau. It’s an excellent heat-accumulating original place which cultivates high quality astragalus membranaceus. Also, abundant sunlight and rainfall at the same period of a year help formation of astragalus polysaccharides, astragaloside, isoflavones and other trace elements in astragalus membranaceus. For herb tea: Astragalus root tea is a popular herbal tea. 15g for a cup of tea. It will be better to steep it in boiling water with red dates to make a cup of nutritious tea.Packed tightly with a labeled resealable bag. Pro-Tips: Make your own extract using the roots in the SwissMixIt system. Put root cuttings into jar of oil and turn on the SwissMixIt system.
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